One Epoch is a Complete dataset that is passed forward and backward through the NN (neural network) only ONCE. One epoch is too big to feed to the computer system at once we divide it into several smaller batches of data sets. An epoch is all the training data used at once and is defined as the total number of repetitions of a process of all the training data in one cycle for training the ML (machine learning) model. Another side to define an epoch is the number of passes a training dataset takes around an algorithm.

## Applications of Epoch

- The total number of epochs is a hyperparameter that defines the number of times that the learning machine learning and deep learning algorithm will work through the fully completed training dataset.
- One epoch is a meaning that each sample in the training dataset has had an opportunity to start and update the internal model parameters. the epoch is comprised of one or many batches. For example, an epoch that has one batch is called the batch gradient descent machine and deep learning algorithm.
- You can think of a for-loop over the total number of epochs where each loop proceeds the training dataset. for-loop is another nested for-loop that iterates over each batch of sample data, one batch has the specified “batch size” number of samples.
- The number of epochs is traditionally higher, often hundreds or thousands, allowing the machine learning and deep learning algorithm to run until the error from the model has been sufficiently minimized. For example, the number of epochs in the literature and in this article is set to 10, 100, 500, 1000, and larger.
- It’s mainly to create line plots that show epochs along the x-axis as time and the error or skill of the model on the y-axis. The plots are sometimes called learning curves. These plots can help to diagnose whether the model has over-learned under learned is a suitably fit for the training datasets of Machine and deep learning.

- The total or the correct number of epochs depends on the characteristic attribute. Complexity or perplexity of your dataset. A good rule of thumb is to start with a value that is three times the number of columns in your data. If you find that the model is still improving or intellectual benefit after all epochs are complete and try again with a higher value.
- After about fifty epochs the test error begins to increase as the model has started to memorize the training set despite the training error remaining at its minimum value.

The ANN (artificial neural networks) epoch refers to one cycle through the full training of the dataset. The training of a NN (neural network) takes more than a few epochs. In this article, if we feed a neural network the training data for more than one epoch in different patterns of data sets, we hope for a better generalization when given a new ‘unseen’ input ‘test data’. An epoch is often mixed up with the iteration. The Iteration is the number of steps or batches through partitioned packets of the training data sets needed to complete one epoch. it gives the network a chance to see the previous data to readjust the model parameters so that the model is not based on the last few data points during the training. It is an art in ML (machine learning) to decide the number of epochs sufficient for a network.

Parallel apply this to other areas of ML (machine learning) such as reinforcement learning where an agent may not take the same route to complete the same basic task. This is because the agent is learning which decisions to make and trying to understand the consequences of such action. A NN (neural network) the goal of the model is generally to classify or generate material that is wrong or right. The epoch for an experimental agent performing many actions for a single task may vary from the epoch for an agent trying to perform a single action for many tasks of the same nature. In reinforcement, learning terminology is more typically referred to as an episode.

Also Read: Vanishing Gradient Problem in Deep Learning

## Conclusion:

An epoch in ML (machine learning) means one complete pass of the training dataset through the machine learning algorithm. This epoch’s number is an important hyperparameter for the ML algorithm. It specifies the number of epochs or complete passes of the entire training dataset passing through the training or Machine and deep learning process of the algorithm. An epoch is all the training data used at once and is defined as the total number of repetitions of a process of all the training data in one cycle for training the ML (machine learning) model. Another side to define an epoch is the number of passes a training dataset takes around an algorithm.